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Loki日志系统详解

2021-08-18 09:10


背景


最近,在对公司容器云的日志方案进行设计的时候,发现主流的ELK或者EFK比较重,再加上现阶段对于ES复杂的搜索功能很多都用不上最终选择了Grafana开源的Loki日志系统,下面介绍下Loki的背景。

背景和动机

当我们的容器云运行的应用或者某个节点出现问题了,解决思路应该如下:


我们的监控使用的是基于Prometheus体系进行改造的,Prometheus中比较重要的是Metric和Alert,Metric是来说明当前或者历史达到了某个值,Alert设置Metric达到某个特定的基数触发了告警,但是这些信息明显是不够的。我们都知道,Kubernetes的基本单位是Pod,Pod把日志输出到stdout和stderr,平时有什么问题我们通常在界面或者通过命令查看相关的日志,举个例子:当我们的某个Pod的内存变得很大,触发了我们的Alert,这个时候管理员,去页面查询确认是哪个Pod有问题,然后要确认Pod内存变大的原因,我们还需要去查询Pod的日志,如果没有日志系统,那么我们就需要到页面或者使用命令进行查询了:



如果,这个时候应用突然挂了,这个时候我们就无法查到相关的日志了,所以需要引入日志系统,统一收集日志,而使用ELK的话,就需要在Kibana和Grafana之间切换,影响用户体验。所以 ,loki的第一目的就是最小化度量和日志的切换成本,有助于减少异常事件的响应时间和提高用户的体验。

ELK存在的问题

现有的很多日志采集的方案都是采用全文检索对日志进行索引(如ELK方案),优点是功能丰富,允许复杂的操作。但是,这些方案往往规模复杂,资源占用高,操作苦难。很多功能往往用不上,大多数查询只关注一定时间范围和一些简单的参数(如host、service等),使用这些解决方案就有点杀鸡用牛刀的感觉了。


因此,Loki的第二个目的是,在查询语言的易操作性和复杂性之间可以达到一个权衡。

成本

全文检索的方案也带来成本问题,简单的说就是全文搜索(如ES)的倒排索引的切分和共享的成本较高。后来出现了其他不同的设计方案如:OKlog,采用最终一致的、基于网格的分布策略。这两个设计决策提供了大量的成本降低和非常简单的操作,但是查询不够方便。因此,Loki的第三个目的是,提高一个更具成本效益的解决方案。


架构


整体架构

Loki的架构如下:


不难看出,Loki的架构非常简单,使用了和Prometheus一样的标签来作为索引,也就是说,你通过这些标签既可以查询日志的内容也可以查询到监控的数据,不但减少了两种查询之间的切换成本,也极大地降低了日志索引的存储。Loki将使用与Prometheus相同的服务发现和标签重新标记库,编写了pormtail,在Kubernetes中promtail以DaemonSet方式运行在每个节点中,通过Kubernetes API等到日志的正确元数据,并将它们发送到Loki。下面是日志的存储架构:


读写

日志数据的写主要依托的是Distributor和Ingester两个组件,整体的流程如下:


Distributor

一旦promtail收集日志并将其发送给loki,Distributor就是第一个接收日志的组件。由于日志的写入量可能很大,所以不能在它们传入时将它们写入数据库。这会毁掉数据库。我们需要批处理和压缩数据。

Loki通过构建压缩数据块来实现这一点,方法是在日志进入时对其进行gzip操作,组件ingester是一个有状态的组件,负责构建和刷新chunck,当chunk达到一定的数量或者时间后,刷新到存储中去。每个流的日志对应一个ingester,当日志到达Distributor后,根据元数据和hash算法计算出应该到哪个ingester上面。


此外,为了冗余和弹性,我们将其复制n(默认情况下为3)次。

Ingester

Ingester接收到日志并开始构建chunk:


基本上就是将日志进行压缩并附加到chunk上面。一旦chunk“填满”(数据达到一定数量或者过了一定期限),ingester将其刷新到数据库。我们对块和索引使用单独的数据库,因为它们存储的数据类型不同。


刷新一个chunk之后,ingester然后创建一个新的空chunk并将新条目添加到该chunk中。

Querier

读取就非常简单了,由Querier负责给定一个时间范围和标签选择器,Querier查看索引以确定哪些块匹配,并通过greps将结果显示出来。它还从Ingester获取尚未刷新的最新数据。

对于每个查询,一个查询器将为您显示所有相关日志。实现了查询并行化,提供分布式grep,使即使是大型查询也是足够的。


可扩展性

Loki的索引存储可以是cassandra/bigtable/dynamodb,而chuncks可以是各种对象存储,Querier和Distributor都是无状态的组件。对于ingester他虽然是有状态的但是,当新的节点加入或者减少,整节点间的chunk会重新分配,已适应新的散列环。而Loki底层存储的实现Cortex已经 在实际的生产中投入使用多年了。有了这句话,我可以放心的在环境中实验一把了。


部署


Loki的安装非常简单。

创建namespace

oc new-project loki


权限设置

oc adm policy add-scc-to-user anyuid -z default -n loki
oc adm policy add-cluster-role-to-user cluster-admin system:serviceaccount:loki:default


安装Loki

安装命令:

oc create -f statefulset.json -n loki

statefulset.json如下:

{
    "apiVersion""apps/v1",
    "kind""StatefulSet",
    "metadata": {
        "name""loki"
    },
    "spec": {
        "podManagementPolicy""OrderedReady",
        "replicas": 1,
        "revisionHistoryLimit": 10,
        "selector": {
            "matchLabels": {
                "app""loki"
            }
        },
        "serviceName""womping-stoat-loki-headless",
        "template": {
            "metadata": {
                "annotations": {
                    "checksum/config""da297d66ee53e0ce68b58e12be7ec5df4a91538c0b476cfe0ed79666343df72b",
                    "prometheus.io/port""http-metrics",
                    "prometheus.io/scrape""true"
                },
                "creationTimestamp": null,
                "labels": {
                    "app""loki",
                    "name""loki"
                }
            },
            "spec": {
                "affinity": {},
                "containers": [
                    {
                        "args": [
                            "-config.file=/etc/loki/local-config.yaml"
                        ],
                        "image""grafana/loki:latest",
                        "imagePullPolicy""IfNotPresent",
                        "livenessProbe": {
                            "failureThreshold": 3,
                            "httpGet": {
                                "path""/ready",
                                "port""http-metrics",
                                "scheme""HTTP"
                            },
                            "initialDelaySeconds": 45,
                            "periodSeconds": 10,
                            "successThreshold": 1,
                            "timeoutSeconds": 1
                        },
                        "name""loki",
                        "ports": [
                            {
                                "containerPort": 3100,
                                "name""http-metrics",
                                "protocol""TCP"
                            }
                        ],
                        "readinessProbe": {
                            "failureThreshold": 3,
                            "httpGet": {
                                "path""/ready",
                                "port""http-metrics",
                                "scheme""HTTP"
                            },
                            "initialDelaySeconds": 45,
                            "periodSeconds": 10,
                            "successThreshold": 1,
                            "timeoutSeconds": 1
                        },
                        "resources": {},
                        "terminationMessagePath""/dev/termination-log",
                        "terminationMessagePolicy""File",
                        "volumeMounts": [
                            {
                                "mountPath""/tmp/loki",
                                "name""storage"
                            }
                        ]
                    }
                ],
                "dnsPolicy""ClusterFirst",
                "restartPolicy""Always",
                "schedulerName""default-scheduler",
                "terminationGracePeriodSeconds": 30,
                "volumes": [
                    {
                        "emptyDir": {},
                        "name""storage"
                    }
                ]
            }
        },
        "updateStrategy": {
            "type""RollingUpdate"
        }
    }
}


安装Promtail

安装命令:

oc create -f configmap.json -n loki

configmap.json如下:

{
    "apiVersion""v1",
    "data": {
        "promtail.yaml""client:\n  backoff_config:\n    maxbackoff: 5s\n    maxretries: 5\n    minbackoff: 100ms\n  batchsize: 102400\n  batchwait: 1s\n  external_labels: {}\n  timeout: 10s\npositions:\n  filename: /run/promtail/positions.yaml\nserver:\n  http_listen_port: 3101\ntarget_config:\n  sync_period: 10s\n\nscrape_configs:\n- job_name: kubernetes-pods-name\n  pipeline_stages:\n    - docker: {}\n    \n  kubernetes_sd_configs:\n  - role: pod\n  relabel_configs:\n  - source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_pod_label_name\n    target_label: __service__\n  - source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_pod_node_name\n    target_label: __host__\n  - action: drop\n    regex: ^$\n    source_labels:\n    - __service__\n  - action: labelmap\n    regex: __meta_kubernetes_pod_label_(.+)\n  - action: replace\n    replacement: $1\n    separator: /\n    source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_namespace\n    - __service__\n    target_label: job\n  - action: replace\n    source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_namespace\n    target_label: namespace\n  - action: replace\n    source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_pod_name\n    target_label: instance\n  - action: replace\n    source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_pod_container_name\n    target_label: container_name\n  - replacement: /var/log/pods/*$1/*.log\n    separator: /\n    source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_pod_uid\n    - __meta_kubernetes_pod_container_name\n    target_label: __path__\n- job_name: kubernetes-pods-app\n  pipeline_stages:\n    - docker: {}\n    \n  kubernetes_sd_configs:\n  - role: pod\n  relabel_configs:\n  - action: drop\n    regex: .+\n    source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_pod_label_name\n  - source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_pod_label_app\n    target_label: __service__\n  - source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_pod_node_name\n    target_label: __host__\n  - action: drop\n    regex: ^$\n    source_labels:\n    - __service__\n  - action: labelmap\n    regex: __meta_kubernetes_pod_label_(.+)\n  - action: replace\n    replacement: $1\n    separator: /\n    source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_namespace\n    - __service__\n    target_label: job\n  - action: replace\n    source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_namespace\n    target_label: namespace\n  - action: replace\n    source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_pod_name\n    target_label: instance\n  - action: replace\n    source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_pod_container_name\n    target_label: container_name\n  - replacement: /var/log/pods/*$1/*.log\n    separator: /\n    source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_pod_uid\n    - __meta_kubernetes_pod_container_name\n    target_label: __path__\n- job_name: kubernetes-pods-direct-controllers\n  pipeline_stages:\n    - docker: {}\n    \n  kubernetes_sd_configs:\n  - role: pod\n  relabel_configs:\n  - action: drop\n    regex: .+\n    separator: ''\n    source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_pod_label_name\n    - __meta_kubernetes_pod_label_app\n  - action: drop\n    regex: ^([0-9a-z-.]+)(-[0-9a-f]{8,10})$\n    source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_pod_controller_name\n  - source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_pod_controller_name\n    target_label: __service__\n  - source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_pod_node_name\n    target_label: __host__\n  - action: drop\n    regex: ^$\n    source_labels:\n    - __service__\n  - action: labelmap\n    regex: __meta_kubernetes_pod_label_(.+)\n  - action: replace\n    replacement: $1\n    separator: /\n    source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_namespace\n    - __service__\n    target_label: job\n  - action: replace\n    source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_namespace\n    target_label: namespace\n  - action: replace\n    source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_pod_name\n    target_label: instance\n  - action: replace\n    source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_pod_container_name\n    target_label: container_name\n  - replacement: /var/log/pods/*$1/*.log\n    separator: /\n    source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_pod_uid\n    - __meta_kubernetes_pod_container_name\n    target_label: __path__\n- job_name: kubernetes-pods-indirect-controller\n  pipeline_stages:\n    - docker: {}\n    \n  kubernetes_sd_configs:\n  - role: pod\n  relabel_configs:\n  - action: drop\n    regex: .+\n    separator: ''\n    source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_pod_label_name\n    - __meta_kubernetes_pod_label_app\n  - action: keep\n    regex: ^([0-9a-z-.]+)(-[0-9a-f]{8,10})$\n    source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_pod_controller_name\n  - action: replace\n    regex: ^([0-9a-z-.]+)(-[0-9a-f]{8,10})$\n    source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_pod_controller_name\n    target_label: __service__\n  - source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_pod_node_name\n    target_label: __host__\n  - action: drop\n    regex: ^$\n    source_labels:\n    - __service__\n  - action: labelmap\n    regex: __meta_kubernetes_pod_label_(.+)\n  - action: replace\n    replacement: $1\n    separator: /\n    source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_namespace\n    - __service__\n    target_label: job\n  - action: replace\n    source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_namespace\n    target_label: namespace\n  - action: replace\n    source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_pod_name\n    target_label: instance\n  - action: replace\n    source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_pod_container_name\n    target_label: container_name\n  - replacement: /var/log/pods/*$1/*.log\n    separator: /\n    source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_pod_uid\n    - __meta_kubernetes_pod_container_name\n    target_label: __path__\n- job_name: kubernetes-pods-static\n  pipeline_stages:\n    - docker: {}\n    \n  kubernetes_sd_configs:\n  - role: pod\n  relabel_configs:\n  - action: drop\n    regex: ^$\n    source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_pod_annotation_kubernetes_io_config_mirror\n  - action: replace\n    source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_pod_label_component\n    target_label: __service__\n  - source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_pod_node_name\n    target_label: __host__\n  - action: drop\n    regex: ^$\n    source_labels:\n    - __service__\n  - action: labelmap\n    regex: __meta_kubernetes_pod_label_(.+)\n  - action: replace\n    replacement: $1\n    separator: /\n    source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_namespace\n    - __service__\n    target_label: job\n  - action: replace\n    source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_namespace\n    target_label: namespace\n  - action: replace\n    source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_pod_name\n    target_label: instance\n  - action: replace\n    source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_pod_container_name\n    target_label: container_name\n  - replacement: /var/log/pods/*$1/*.log\n    separator: /\n    source_labels:\n    - __meta_kubernetes_pod_annotation_kubernetes_io_config_mirror\n    - __meta_kubernetes_pod_container_name\n    target_label: __path__\n"
    },
    "kind""ConfigMap",
    "metadata": {
        "creationTimestamp""2019-09-05T01:05:03Z",
        "labels": {
            "app""promtail",
            "chart""promtail-0.12.0",
            "heritage""Tiller",
            "release""lame-zorse"
        },
        "name""lame-zorse-promtail",
        "namespace""loki",
        "resourceVersion""17921611",
        "selfLink""/api/v1/namespaces/loki/configmaps/lame-zorse-promtail",
        "uid""30fcb896-cf79-11e9-b58e-e4a8b6cc47d2"
    }
}




oc create -f daemonset.json -n loki

daemonset.json如下:

     {
            "apiVersion""apps/v1",
            "kind""DaemonSet",
            "metadata": {
                "annotations": {
                    "deployment.kubernetes.io/revision""2"
                },
                "creationTimestamp""2019-09-05T01:16:37Z",
                "generation": 2,
                "labels": {
                    "app""promtail",
                    "chart""promtail-0.12.0",
                    "heritage""Tiller",
                    "release""lame-zorse"
                },
                "name""lame-zorse-promtail",
                "namespace""loki"
            },
            "spec": {
                "progressDeadlineSeconds": 600,
                "replicas": 1,
                "revisionHistoryLimit": 10,
                "selector": {
                    "matchLabels": {
                        "app""promtail",
                        "release""lame-zorse"
                    }
                },
                "strategy": {
                    "rollingUpdate": {
                        "maxSurge": 1,
                        "maxUnavailable": 1
                    },
                    "type""RollingUpdate"
                },
                "template": {
                    "metadata": {
                        "annotations": {
                            "checksum/config""75a25ee4f2869f54d394bf879549a9c89c343981a648f8d878f69bad65dba809",
                            "prometheus.io/port""http-metrics",
                            "prometheus.io/scrape""true"
                        },
                        "creationTimestamp": null,
                        "labels": {
                            "app""promtail",
                            "release""lame-zorse"
                        }
                    },
                    "spec": {
                        "affinity": {},
                        "containers": [
                            {
                                "args": [
                                    "-config.file=/etc/promtail/promtail.yaml",
                                    "-client.url=http://loki.loki.svc:3100/api/prom/push"
                                ],
                                "env": [
                                    {
                                        "name""HOSTNAME",
                                        "valueFrom": {
                                            "fieldRef": {
                                                "apiVersion""v1",
                                                "fieldPath""spec.nodeName"
                                            }
                                        }
                                    }
                                ],
                                "image""grafana/promtail:v0.3.0",
                                "imagePullPolicy""IfNotPresent",
                                "name""promtail",
                                "ports": [
                                    {
                                        "containerPort": 3101,
                                        "name""http-metrics",
                                        "protocol""TCP"
                                    }
                                ],
                                "readinessProbe": {
                                    "failureThreshold": 5,
                                    "httpGet": {
                                        "path""/ready",
                                        "port""http-metrics",
                                        "scheme""HTTP"
                                    },
                                    "initialDelaySeconds": 10,
                                    "periodSeconds": 10,
                                    "successThreshold": 1,
                                    "timeoutSeconds": 1
                                },
                                "resources": {},
                                "securityContext": {
                                    "readOnlyRootFilesystem"true,
                                    "runAsUser": 0
                                },
                                "terminationMessagePath""/dev/termination-log",
                                "terminationMessagePolicy""File",
                                "volumeMounts": [
                                    {
                                        "mountPath""/etc/promtail",
                                        "name""config"
                                    },
                                    {
                                        "mountPath""/run/promtail",
                                        "name""run"
                                    },
                                    {
                                        "mountPath""/var/lib/docker/containers",
                                        "name""docker",
                                        "readOnly"true
                                    },
                                    {
                                        "mountPath""/var/log/pods",
                                        "name""pods",
                                        "readOnly"true
                                    }
                                ]
                            }
                        ],
                        "dnsPolicy""ClusterFirst",
                        "restartPolicy""Always",
                        "schedulerName""default-scheduler",
                        "securityContext": {},
                        "terminationGracePeriodSeconds": 30,
                        "volumes": [
                            {
                                "configMap": {
                                    "defaultMode": 420,
                                    "name""lame-zorse-promtail"
                                },
                                "name""config"
                            },
                            {
                                "hostPath": {
                                    "path""/run/promtail",
                                    "type"""
                                },
                                "name""run"
                            },
                            {
                                "hostPath": {
                                    "path""/var/lib/docker/containers",
                                    "type"""
                                },
                                "name""docker"
                            },
                            {
                                "hostPath": {
                                    "path""/var/log/pods",
                                    "type"""
                                },
                                "name""pods"
                            }
                        ]
                    }
                }
            }
        }


安装服务

oc create -f service.json -n loki

service.json的内容如下:

{
    "apiVersion""v1",
    "kind""Service",
    "metadata": {
        "creationTimestamp""2019-09-04T09:37:49Z",
        "name""loki",
        "namespace""loki",
        "resourceVersion""17800188",
        "selfLink""/api/v1/namespaces/loki/services/loki",
        "uid""a87fe237-cef7-11e9-b58e-e4a8b6cc47d2"
    },
    "spec": {
        "externalTrafficPolicy""Cluster",
        "ports": [
            {
                "name""lokiport",
                "port": 3100,
                "protocol""TCP",
                "targetPort": 3100
            }
        ],
        "selector": {
            "app""loki"
        },
        "sessionAffinity""None",
        "type""NodePort"
    },
    "status": {
        "loadBalancer": {}
    }


语法


Loki提供了HTTP接口,我们这里就不详解了,大家可以看:https://github.com/grafana/loki/blob/master/docs/api.md

我们这里说下查询的接口如何使用。

第一步,获取当前Loki的元数据类型:

curl http://192.168.25.30:30972/api/prom/label
{
 "values": ["alertmanager""app""component""container_name""controller_revision_hash""deployment""deploymentconfig""docker_registry""draft""filename""instance""job""logging_infra""metrics_infra""name""namespace""openshift_io_component""pod_template_generation""pod_template_hash""project""projectname""prometheus""provider""release""router""servicename""statefulset_kubernetes_io_pod_name""stream""tekton_dev_pipeline""tekton_dev_pipelineRun""tekton_dev_pipelineTask""tekton_dev_task""tekton_dev_taskRun""type""webconsole"]
}

第二步,获取某个元数据类型的值:

curl http://192.168.25.30:30972/api/prom/label/namespace/values
{"values":["cicd","default","gitlab","grafanaserver","jenkins","jx-staging","kube-system","loki","mysql-exporter","new2","openshift-console","openshift-infra","openshift-logging","openshift-monitoring","openshift-node","openshift-sdn","openshift-web-console","tekton-pipelines","test111"]}

第三步,根据label进行查询,例如:

http://192.168.25.30:30972/api/prom/query?direction=BACKWARD&limit=1000&regexp=&query={namespace="cicd"}&start=1567644457221000000&end=1567730857221000000&refId=A

参数解析:

  • query:一种查询语法详细见下面章节,{name=~“mysql.+”} or {namespace=“cicd”} |= "error"表示查询,namespace为CI/CD的日志中,有error字样的信息。

  • limit:返回日志的数量

  • start:开始时间,Unix时间表示方法 默认为,一小时前时间

  • end:结束时间,默认为当前时间

  • direction:forward或者backward,指定limit时候有用,默认为 backward

  • regexp:对结果进行regex过滤


LogQL语法

选择器

对于查询表达式的标签部分,将放在{}中,多个标签表达式用逗号分隔:

{app="mysql",name="mysql-backup"}

支持的符号有:

  • =:完全相同。

  • !=:不平等。

  • =~:正则表达式匹配。

  • !~:不要正则表达式匹配。


过滤表达式

编写日志流选择器后,您可以通过编写搜索表达式进一步过滤结果。搜索表达式可以文本或正则表达式。

如:

  • {job=“mysql”} |= “error”

  • {name=“kafka”} |~ “tsdb-ops.*io:2003”

  • {instance=~“kafka-[23]”,name=“kafka”} != kafka.server:type=ReplicaManager


支持多个过滤:

  • {job=“mysql”} |= “error” != “timeout”


目前支持的操作符:

  • |= line包含字符串。

  • != line不包含字符串。

  • |~ line匹配正则表达式。

  • !~ line与正则表达式不匹配。


表达式遵循https://github.com/google/re2/wiki/Syntax语法。

原文链接:

  1. https://blog.csdn.net/Linkthaha/article/details/100575278

  2. http://blog.csdn.net/Linkthaha/article/details/100575651

  3. https://blog.csdn.net/Linkthaha/article/details/100582422

  4. https://blog.csdn.net/Linkthaha/article/details/10058258


Kubernetes管理员(CKA)培训


本次培训在上海开班,基于最新考纲,通过线下授课、考题解读、模拟演练等方式,帮助学员快速掌握Kubernetes的理论知识和专业技能,并针对考试做特别强化训练,让学员能从容面对CKA认证考试,使学员既能掌握Kubernetes相关知识,又能通过CKA认证考试,学员可多次参加培训,直到通过认证。点击下方图片或者阅读原文链接查看详情。



知识来源: https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s?__biz=MzA5OTAyNzQ2OA==&mid=2649736896&idx=1&sn=cd41f68102f076bc635cc57e59e0e4a1

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