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SoK: Understanding the Prevailing Security Vulnerabilities in TrustZone-assisted TEE Systems

2020-10-07 16:37

会议:S&P 2020

论文名称:SoK: Understanding the Prevailing Security Vulnerabilities in TrustZone-assisted TEE Systems

本文中,作者对TrustZone-assisted TEE Systems中存在的安全问题进行了研究,整理了目前各种TEE的实现中所存在的Attack Surface,并对出现的漏洞进行了归类、讨论了TrustZone-assisted TEE Systems中的缓解措施。文中对比了Qualcomm, Trustonic, Huawei, Nvidia, and Linaro的TEE实现。

Attacking TEE-enabled Devices

Compromising the TEE kernel:攻击者可以通过两条路线攻陷TEE kernel:

  • REE App→Android OS→Secure Monitor→TEE Kernel;
  • REE App→TA→TEE Kernel

Compromising the REE kernel: REE App→TA,攻击者在compromised TA中可以map NW物理内存,以修改被Linux kernel分配的内存。

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Analyzed TEE Systems

作者研究了数个TEE的实现:Qualcomm, Trustonic, Huawei, Nvidia, and Linaro

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作者总结发现其中三个主要的攻击面:

  • Architectural (eg. 没有ASLR)
  • Implementation (e.g. 实现上的漏洞,buffer overflow)
  • Hardware (e.g. side-channel)

Architectural Issues

TEE Attack Surface

  • SW drivers run in the TEE kernel space
  • Wide interfaces between TEE system subcomponents
  • Excessively large TEE TCBs (Trusted Computing Base)TCB较大,其中可能存在潜在的漏洞

Isolation between Normal and Secure Worlds

  • TAs can map physical memory in the NW
  • Information leaks to NW through debugging channels

Memory Protection Mechanisms

  • Absent or weak ASLR implementations
  • No stack cookies, guard pages, or execution protection

Trust Bootstrapping

  • Lack of software-independent TEE integrity reporting 缺乏远程三方认证
  • ill-supported TA revocation 废除掉旧的TA,否则攻击者可能可以加载一个旧版本、存在漏洞的TA,以进行攻击。

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Implementation Issues

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Validation Bugs

在Secure Monitor, TA, Trusted Kernel, Secure Boot Loader中均发现了认证相关的漏洞。

功能性错误

程序员实现与标准存在差异而引发的漏洞

Extrinsic Bugs

包括并发错误、侧信道

Hardware Issues

硬件架构:

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Architectural Implications

  • Attacks through reconfigurable hardware components TEE,引入新硬件而带来的攻击面,FPGA可以被重新配置
  • Attacks through energy management mechanisms,电源管理相关驱动存在攻击面

Microarchitectural Side-Channels

  • Leaking information through caches,在TrustZone-enabled处理器上,cache是被secure world和normal world共享。目前已有成功从cache中恢复128bit AES密钥。
  • Leaking information through branch predictor,现代处理器中有branch target buffer (BTB)用于分支预测,被SW和NW共享,可以通过Prime+Probe leak敏感信息。已有攻击从Qualcomm上的kerstore恢复出256-bit私钥。
  • Leaking information using Rowhammer,Rowhammer是一种利用软件引起硬件错误,从而影响DRAM的技术。允许攻击者止痛膏内存读操作,反转物理内存中的bits。当TEE中的RSA private被分配在secure/no-secure内存边界处时,可以在no-secure边界频繁读,造成在secure引入错误,从而corrupt private keys。

DEFENSES FOR TRUSTZONE-ASSISTED TEES

近年来提出的防御措施:

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Architectural Defenses

  • Multi-isolated environments
  • Secure cross-world channels
  • Encrypted memory
  • Trusted computing primitives

Implementation Defenses

  • Managed code runtimes,在TEE中运行解释型语言,使其在受控范围内运行
  • Type-safe programming languages,Rust
  • Software verification,对程序进行建模、符号执行、形式化验证等方式减少bug

Hardware Defenses

  • Architectural countermeasures
  • Microarchitectural countermeasures,算法实现、清L1 cache

相关技术研究

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知识来源: https://loccs.sjtu.edu.cn/gossip//blog/2020/09/08/sok-understanding-the-prevailing-security-vulnerabilities-in-trustzone-assisted-tee-systems

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